There are many reasons, both physiological and psychological, that can contribute to sexual dysfunction. Hormones are a key component of regulating women’s sexual desire. Women that are nearing, going through, or have gone through menopause often experience changes in their sexual function — including symptoms such as vaginal dryness, decreased libido, and painful intercourse.
For some women, childbirth can result in changes to the vagina and labia that lead to sexual discomfort and reduced sensitivity. For example, labial hypertrophy (enlarged labia), can cause painful tugging during intercourse.
But sexual dysfunction is not always tied to a physiological problem — it is common for intimacy issues to be the result of stress and other mental health disorders. Stress from relationship conflict, pregnancy, parenting, or a demanding career can also carry over into the bedroom.